A prominent researcher in Scotland has been suspended amidst a misconduct investigation at the University of Dundee.
As the outlet reports:
The award-winning Wellcome Trust senior research fellow is at the forefront of global research which could lead to new treatments for cystic fibrosis and has received extensive public funding.
But it is alleged he used identical images across multiple papers, claiming they were different strains. In some cases, it is alleged the evidence was flipped or rotated, which could indicate an “intent to deceive”, according to one source.
The extent of the alleged misconduct is unclear, but the source indicated it is alleged to have spanned “a number of years” and involved numerous prestigious journals.
Six of Ryan’s papers have been cited at least 100 times, according to Thomson Reuters Web of Science.
A few of Ryan’s papers have been flagged on PubPeer; we’ve tracked down two corrections: One for a 2013 EMBO Journal paper, “A cyclic GMP-dependent signalling pathway regulates bacterial phytopathogenesis,” cited 18 times. The correction notice was issued a few months after publication:
Since the publication of this article, the authors have noticed several errors that in any case do not affect the original conclusions presented. The authors apologize for any inconvenience caused.
The gel presented in panel A of Figure 2 suggests a slightly incorrect size for the purified CYC domain of XC_250. Panel E in the same figure incorrectly describes D28 as D41 (see below). The correct figure and legend are shown below. Source data for this figure is now available on the online supplementary information page.
The predicted critical amino acid sites of XC_0250 were reported incorrectly in the section ‘The cyclase domain of XC_0250 is active in cyclic GMP synthesis’, with D28 described as D41. The text should have read:
‘The two critical metal‐ion binding aspartates are conserved (D28 and D71) as well as an alanine (A150) residue that occupies a substrate‐specifying position. However, the transition state‐stabilizing asparagine and arginine residues are substituted by leucine (L157) and alanine (A161). The importance of both conserved and altered residues (D28, D41, D71, L73, A150, L157, A161) for the enzymatic activity of this domain was examined by assessing the effects of alanine or serine substitutions’.
And at a later point in the same section: ‘Several of these residues (D28, D71, A150, L157) are conserved in the R. centenum guanylyl cyclase (Supplementary Fig S1).’…Consistent with this, the alignment in Supplementary Fig S1 panel A incorrectly shows the position of D28. The correct figure and legend are available above.
And here’s the correction notice for “HD-GYP domain proteins regulate biofilm formation and virulence in Pseudomonas aeruginosa,” published in Environmental Microbiology in 2008 and cited 50 times. The correction notice was issued earlier this year, and cites a duplicated image:
…there was an image duplication within Figure 4C where the same image was mistakenly used to represent two different complemented bacterial strains. A corrected version of Figure 4 is given here. None of the conclusions of the paper are altered. We apologise to the readership of the Journal for this error and for any inconvenience caused.
Other papers by Ryan — such as “Cyclic di-GMP signalling in the virulence and environmental adaptation of Xanthomonas campestris” published in Molecular Microbiology in 2006 and cited 91 times — have also been questioned on PubPeer. Commenters have raised allegations about other papers, such as a 2012 PLOS ONE paper, and a 2010 paper in PNAS.
In 2013, Ryan was awarded the prestigious Society for General Microbiology’s Fleming Prize; the next year, he earned the Lister Prize fellowship, totaling 200,000 pounds over five years. Also in 2014, he received the RSE Patrick Neill Medal. Last year, he was selected to be an EMBO Young Investigator.
According to The Scotsman, Ryan has received more than $1 million in grant funding to support his research. The outlet reports that his lab has been disbanded, “with PhD students and staff scientists reallocated elsewhere.”
The Scotsman included a statement from the University of Dundee:
In a statement, the University of Dundee said: “There is an ongoing investigation into an allegation of research misconduct. In order not to prejudice in any way the outcome of that investigation, we are unable to comment further on it at this time.
“The university has clear policies relating to research misconduct, and any such allegations are thoroughly investigated.”
It added that a member of staff has been suspended pending the investigation being completed.
Professor Barry Plant, the co-ordinator of CFMATTERS, an EU-funded cystic fibrosis research consortium, provided a more specific quote to The Scotsman:
I can confirm that CFMATTERS is aware of his suspension. Any potential decisions regarding the project and Dr Ryan will be made in close collaboration with the EU Commission funders once the Dundee investigation is completed.
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