Retraction Watch Database User Guide Appendix C: Article Types


Article Types Description
Article in Press Items published before assignment to an journal issue
Auto/Biography About a person, author by the person or another
Book Chapter/Reference Work Section from a non-periodical published work, or the entire non-periodical published work
Case Report Article describing the signs, symptoms, diagnosis and resolution of a single or very limited number of patients
Clinical Study Research study of humans where the outcome of a group undergoing a specific treatment is compared to a non-treatment group
Commentary/Editorial Opinion piece, either by editor or guest author
Conference Abstract/Paper Item published in conference proceedings
Correction/Erratum/Corrigendum A notice that amends an already published item.  Can include letters to the editor by the authors of the item in question.
Dissertation/Thesis A scholarly work conducted as a requirement for the granting of a degree
Expression of Concern Notice published by the publisher or journal editor in regards to an already published item – generally indicates some type of question as to the accuracy or integrity of the item, but may also be the editor’s/publisher’s response to published comments concerning the item
Festschrift A publication made in honor of someone
Government Publication Non-research published item funded and published by governmental agency or institution
Guideline Published item providing a set or recommendations to follow given a certain set of circumstances
Interview/Q&A A published piece comprised primarily of quotes from a single person
Legal Case/Analysis Review or discussion about interpretations or implications of regulations or laws
Letter Any type of item published in the Correspondence or Letter (to the Editor) section of a journal
Meta-Analysis An analysis of the combined data from several separate studies
Newspaper/Magazine Article Periodical with largely non-sourced material published as a commercial venture
Other No other suitable choice is available
Research Article Published item describing a hypothesis, means of exploring the hypothesis, the results of the exploration, and the conclusions drawn from the results
Retracted Article Published item no longer considered a citable source
Retraction Notice Notice published by the publisher, journal editor or original authors that item in question is not to be consider a citable source
Review Article Evaluation of literature concerning a topic, without the presentation of new data
Supplementary Materials Data sets and image files published separately and in addition to the original article
Technical Report/White Paper Scientific research paper published by governmental agency or institution