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Retraction Watch

Tracking retractions as a window into the scientific process

A retracted retraction: Backsies for an anti-terrorism paper

with 7 comments

Nasrullah Memon

Nasrullah Memon

The other day, we wrote about a puzzling situation that appeared to involve the ninth retraction for an anti-terrorism researcher. A book chapter by Nasrullah Memon, of the University of Southern Denmark, was marked “Retracted,” both in the abstract’s title and on the PDF. But Memon forwarded us an email from Springer, the book’s publisher, saying that they had decided to publish an erratum rather than retract.

And indeed, sometime after we published our post, the retraction was changed to an erratum, with the following notice:

Table 1 of the paper starting on page 430 of this volume was copied, without permission, from the paper “Countering Terrorism through Information and Privacy Protection Technologies” by R. Popp and J. Poindexter, published in Security & Privacy, IEEE (Volume 4, Issue 6), 2006.

Springer’s Anna Kramer tells Retraction Watch:

This shouldn’t have been a retraction and this has now been corrected. An Erratum was inserted, which was intentional and is still there. The paper is not being corrected.

Now, some Retraction Watch readers may be familiar with the distinction between an Erratum and a correction, but if others of you aren’t, that’s understandable. Here’s what the National Library of Medicine, which produces PubMed (Medline), has to say:

Corrections or corrigenda for previously-published articles are all uniformly considered by NLM to be errata. NLM does not differentiate between errors that originate in the publication process and those that result from errors of scientific logic or methodology, because journal editors do not make this distinction consistently or clearly.

We’ve covered a few retracted retractions, although we can’t remember one that happened because of an error. Or wait, is that a Corrigendum?

Update, 1:30 p.m. Eastern, 1/13/14: We asked Springer’s Kramer how this happened:

I am afraid that the team who were instructed to upload an erratum, performed a retraction as well. To my knowledge, this is the first time that this has happened!

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Written by Ivan Oransky

January 10, 2014 at 9:30 am

7 Responses

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  1. More interesting (to me) than the retraction, is what’s “copied without permission”? Isn’t this a copyright issue?

    Lo Mein

    January 10, 2014 at 10:03 am

    • I have three hypotheses, and I use Springer since the case refers to Springer. But no other publisher should be relieved of any less scrutiny, especially those that publish books, including all main-stream publishers like Elsevier, Wiley, Taylor and Francis/Informa, etc. And including other almost 6000 publishers at http://journalseek.net/publishers.htm

      Hypothesis 1: Springer, which is probably the most prolific publisher of scientific BOOKS on the globe, doesn’t want a massive black box to be opened. After all, how does one retract a retraction that is clearly based on a clear case of plagiarism? When cases are black on white, but the issue of publishing ethics is made murky by the very same entities that are supposedly meant to be the defenders of ethics and rigor (i.e., the publishers), then one can sense a crisis. To date, academics have been doing post-publication peer review almost exclusively of academic journals, but have failed to focus on book chapters. I openly call for a wide-reaching and deep examination of Springer book chapters. Can you imagine if authors and academics start to examine the wealthy Springer book chapter literature en masse? I am of the belief that by backtracking and issuing a broader erratum (rather than wiping the slate clean with a retraction), Springer is safe-guarding itself to not having to retract future cases of unauthorized and/or undeclared duplication (= plagiarism = unethical behavior) of text, tables or figures in BOOK chapters.

      Hypothesis 2: since many scientists and institutions do not have (institutional) access to book chapters, the content has not been examined as much as journals. For example, my previous research institute, due to severe budget cuts, could only afford access to a limited number of Springer journals, thus cutting the possibility of accessing book chapters (i.e., access). Limited access = limited scrutiny. Can you imagine if Springer were to make its entire collection open access what level of fraud, plagiarism and duplication could be discovered?

      Hypothesis 3: BOOK CHAPTERS will be the house of cards that could implode Springer’s image. The image is already suffering from some high profile retractions. Springer is already starting to reel from an explosion of retractions caused by an exponential increase in awareness, thanks to RW and other blogs and the open access movement. I am of the opinion that independent of the medium (book, journal paper, proceedings paper, in English or in any other language), duplication (without declarations at the time of submission or publication) of another’s ideas, text, tables or figures constitutes plagiarism while duplication (also without declarations at the time of submission or publication) of one’s own ideas (i.e., self-plagiarism) are equally unethical, whether we are talking about one table, or the entire content of a paper.

      Thus, let’s get this absolutely straight (assuming that the information provided is true, and accurate): “Table 1 of the paper starting on page 430 of this volume was copied, without permission” by Nasrullah Memon is a PURE case of plagiarism (without permission = plagiarism, or theft). Springer goofed-up and the message sent to the academic pool is even worse: rather than a hard-core crack-down, leniency is being allowed. What message does this send the young scientists who are emerging from graduate and post-graduate courses? The message sent, so as not to be euphemistic, is that the theft of tables (or possibly even other academic information, ideas, figures, or text) is ACCEPTABLE, and the only thing the author will suffer is a little slap on the wrist and an erratum PDF file.

      May I suggest that in clear cases like this that a wave of peaceful protest take place. Maybe everyone who disagrees with the decision sends the editor board and publisher (in this case Springer) an e-mail saying that they disagree with the decision to retract a retraction, then maybe they will have no choice but to revert back to the retraction when a critical mass of “academic protesters” is reached.

      I also suggest greater quantification in terms of text.

      JATdS

      January 11, 2014 at 5:18 am

      • I wish to query once again why duplicate publications under different labels are considered by the publishers to be ethical, even more so when profit is being made from these duplications. Here, I wish to draw the attention of RW readers to two cases.

        Case 1 (Springer Science + Business Media)

        Space Science Reviews December 2011, Volume 162, Issue 1-4, pp 85-111
        Recent Results from Titan’s Ionosphere
        A. J. Coates, J.-E. Wahlund, K. Ågren, N. Edberg, J. Cui, A. Wellbrock, K. Szego

        http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11214-011-9826-4

        Price: $39.95 / €34.95 / £29.95
        Citations: 4

        The Plasma Environment of Venus, Mars, and Titan Space Sciences Series of ISSI Volume 37, 2012, pp 85-111
        Recent Results from Titan’s Ionosphere
        A. J. Coates, J.-E. Wahlund, K. Ågren, N. Edberg, J. Cui, A. Wellbrock, K. Szego

        http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-1-4614-3290-6_4

        Price: $29.95 / €24.95 / £19.95
        Citations: 0

        Case 2 (Springer Science + Business Media)

        Space Science Reviews December 2011, Volume 162, Issue 1-4, pp 25-83
        Upstream of Saturn and Titan
        C. S. Arridge, N. André, C. L. Bertucci, P. Garnier, C. M. Jackman, Z. Németh, A. M. Rymer, N. Sergis, K. Szego, A. J. Coates, F. J. Crary

        http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11214-011-9849-x

        Price: $39.95 / €34.95 / £29.95
        Citations: 4

        The Plasma Environment of Venus, Mars, and Titan Space Sciences Series of ISSI Volume 37, 2012, pp 25-83
        Upstream of Saturn and Titan
        C. S. Arridge, N. André, C. L. Bertucci, P. Garnier, C. M. Jackman, Z. Németh, A. M. Rymer, N. Sergis, K. Szego, A. J. Coates, F. J. Crary

        http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-1-4614-3290-6_3

        Price: $29.95 / €24.95 / £19.95
        Citations: 0

        In all 4 cases, the price of a PDF file is different (chapters are cheaper, even for the exact same information!). In other words, this is a classical case of double dipping.

        As I have discussed elsewhere, using another Springer S+BM article + chapter as an example [1], this has serious consequences for the metrics and citations if and only if both article and chapter are cited. In other words, the business model employed by the publisher is not only seeking additional revenue, but is also indirectly giving those scientists an unfair edge. Why then, can all authors not have all of their original papers republished, without any ethical barriers, as a book chapter.

        NOTE: these duplications do not acknowledge the existence of the duplicate copy (article or chapter), which is why I am very concerned about the extent to which this practice is taking place at Springer S+BM. Requests to Springer S+BM for a detailed explanation as to why this should be ethical, acceptable and correct remain unanswered.

        [1] http://scholarlyoa.com/2014/07/29/meta-analyses-and-the-problems-of-duplicate-publication-and-plagiarism/ (July 30, 2014)

        JATdS

        October 19, 2014 at 10:23 pm

        • JATdS, just to give a correction to your NOTE, the description of the book actually state :
          “Previously published in Space Science Reviews journal, Vol. 162/1-4, 2011.”
          It is then not as opaque as you may suggest.

          deillevid

          October 20, 2014 at 3:22 am

          • In fact, all the papers bear the publication information of Space Science Reviews and every page says “reprinted from the journal”. No surprise then that there are no references to the book chapters.

            Looks to me like JATdS owes somebody an apology!

            Marco

            October 20, 2014 at 4:53 am

  2. Best thing to be done is also test the remaining text for other possibly copied sections. Experience tells that most editors and authors disclose only part of the problem.

    CR

    January 12, 2014 at 4:33 am


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