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Retraction Watch

Tracking retractions as a window into the scientific process

University of Virginia business PhD student has second paper retracted

with 9 comments

j enterprising cultureA PhD student at the University of Virginia’s Darden School of Business who had a paper retracted for plagiarism in March has had a second paper retracted.

Bloomberg BusinessWeek was first to report the new retraction by Eugene Z. Geh. The study, “Understanding the Antecedents to an Entrepreneurial Firm’s Intent to Engage in International Strategic Alliances,” originally published in the Journal of Enterprising Culture, now simply reads:

The article has been retracted.

A commenter on our earlier post pointed out similarities between the now-retracted study and one in the Journal of Business Venturing.

When the first paper was retracted, doctoral program director Andrew Wicks told us:

There was an extensive investigation done and all the evidence pointed to an isolated incident that was a mistake rather than a calculated effort to plagiarize.

Apparently the paper retracted in March, which appeared in the Journal of Business Ethics, was not an isolated incident. BusinessWeek reports that Zeh’s out-of-office reply said he was on medical leave.

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9 Responses

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  1. More “isolated” incidents:

    Geh, E. (2011). Understanding strategic alliances from the effectual entrepreneurial firm’s perspective-an organization theory perspective. S.A.M.Advanced Management Journal, 76(4), 27-36

    As a result, entrepreneurs prefer to build partnerships rather than focus on competitive behavior at their firms’ earlier phases (Sarasvathy, 2001).
    An important factor in this process is the concept of trust – a widely researched construct in alliance studies. According to Coleman (1990), entrepreneurship is somehow a trust function in which trustors place resources in the hands of others who are expected to realize gains. Entrepreneurs need to trust and be trusted to get pre-commitments from their alliance partners. Alliance studies have provided both theoretical and empirical evidence that trust plays a mainly positive role in reducing the complexity of the alliance operations, lowering transaction costs, and accessing accurate and valuable information. However, other scholars (e.g., Zahra, Yavuz, and Ucbasaran, 2006; Goel and Karri, 2006) propose diat the reliance on trust (by entrepreneurial firms) could be excessive and lead to over-trust, causing serious errors of judgments.
    Over-trust is a bias with which one chooses, either consciously or habitualy, to trust another more than is warranted by an objective assessment of the situation (Goel, Bell, and Pierce, 2005). Using this definition, Goel and Karri (2006) further refine over-trust in the context of the entrepreneur’s behavior as “instrumental in making deals under the assumption that the other parties will keep their end of the bargain.” They proposed mat in the absence of perfect information and systematical evaluation of objective criteria, entrepreneurs effectuate through alliances and cooperative strategies, rely on them more heavily than they objectively should, and make bets on relationship outcomes.

    Ye, Q.; Fitzsimmons, J. And Douglas, E. (2008?): Do Effectual Approaches to Entrepreneurship Destroy Value?. Available (as of 07/17/2013) here: http://fusionmx.babson.edu/entrep/fer/2008FER/chapter_04/paperfr_iv_2.html

    Therefore, with this approach, entrepreneurs prefer to build partnerships rather than focusing on competitive behavior at the startup phase (Sarasvathy, 2001a). A very important factor involved into this process is the concept of trust. As Coleman (1990) noted, entrepreneurship is somehow a trust function in which trustors place resources in the hands of other actors who are expected to realize gains. Entrepreneurs need to trust and being trusted in order to get pre-commitment from their partners or stakeholders. There are informative literature theoretically or empirically addressing that trust plays a mainly positively role in reducing the complexity of business operations, in lowing transaction costs, in accessing accurate and valuable information, and in making things happen quickly and efficiently (Howorth & Moro, 2006; Welter & Smallbone, 2006). However, several scholars have recently noticed the dysfunctional effects of trust on entrepreneurship (Goel et al., 2006; Zahra, Yavuz, & Ucbasaran, 2006). They proposed that reliance on trust can be excessive and lead to over-trust causing serious errors of judgment.
    Over-trust is a bias with which one chooses, either consciously or habitually, to trust another more than is warranted by an objective assessment of the situation (Goel, Bell, & Pierce, 2005). Basing on this definition, Goel and Karri (2006 , p479) further refine over-trust in the context of the entrepreneur’s trusting behavior as “instrumental in making deals under the assumption that the other parties will keep their end of the bargain.”. They proposed that in the absence of perfect information and systematical evaluation of objective criteria, entrepreneurs effectuate through alliances and cooperative strategies, rely more heavily on their partners and networks, and make bets on relational outcome.

    Frank

    July 17, 2013 at 9:08 am

    • Wow- that’s incredible. 3 for 3!

      ST

      July 24, 2013 at 1:05 pm

  2. Reblogged this on The Firewall.

    forgottenman2013

    July 17, 2013 at 10:08 am

  3. From the MSc thesis at Singapore Management University:
    Geh, E. (2009): A Study of the Effects of Mediators between Spirituality at Work and Organizational Citizenship Behaviors, MSc thesis at Singapore Management University.
    “Currently, most writings on this topic have adopted a very optimistic view of the relationship between work, organization and spirituality. However, despite the wide interest and optimism, empirical studies are still scarce, thus leading several authors to call for them (Strack et al., 2002; Sanders III et al. , 2003; Dean, 2004; Duchon and Plowman, 2005). Some notable exceptions may be identified, however. One of the noteworthy studies was published by Mitroff and Denton (1999), in a book entitled A Spiritual Audit of Corporate America. It was based on experiences and opinions of practicing managers and executives. Other empirical studies have also been carried out. For example, Duchon and Plowman (2005), studying medical units, found that work-unit performance is associated with work-unit spirituality. Fry et al. (2005) uncovered positive relationships between the qualities of spiritual leadership, spiritual survival and organizational productivity and commitment. Ashar and Lane-Maher (2004) concluded that mid- and senior-level executives in a federal government agency link the concept of success to spirituality, stating that to be successful one needs to embrace spirituality.”

    Rego, A. & Pina e Cunha, M. (2008): “Workplace spirituality and organizational commitment: an empirical study” in: Journal of Organizational Change Management, 21(1).
    “Most writings on the topic have adopted a very optimistic view of the relationship between work, organizations and spirituality. [...]Despite the wide interest and optimism, empirical studies are still scarce, thus leading several authors to call for them (Strack et al., 2002; Sanders III et al., 2003; Dean, 2004; Duchon and Plowman, 2005). Some notable exceptions may be identified, however. One of the noteworthy studies was published by Mitroff and Denton (1999), in a book entitled A Spiritual Audit of Corporate America. It was based on experiences and opinions of practicing managers and executives. [...]Other empirical studies have also been carried out. For example, Duchon and Plowman (2005), studying medical units, found that work-unit performance is associated with work-unit spirituality. Fry et al. (2005) uncovered positive relationships between the qualities of spiritual leadership, spiritual survival and organizational productivity and commitment. Ashar and Lane-Maher (2004) concluded that mid- and senior-level executives in a federal government agency link the concept of success to spirituality, stating that to be successful one needs to embrace spirituality.”

    Geh, E. (2009): A Study of the Effects of Mediators between Spirituality at Work and Organizational Citizenship Behaviors, MSc thesis at Singapore Management University.

    “Given the impact of organizational commitment on work-related behaviors, the consequences of organizational commitment have received a great deal of attention. There has been a growing body of published literature regarding the expected positive relationship between organizational commitment and work-related outcomes such as performance (Larson and Fukami, 1984; Petty et al., 1984), job related pro-social behaviors (Brief and Motowidlo, 1986; Williams and Anderson, 1991), and organizational citizenship behaviors (Organ, 1990; Williams and Anderson, 1991). In this study, we look at how organizational commitment mediates the relationship between spirituality at work and organizational citizenship behaviors. One potential consequence of organizational commitment is a class of behaviors known as organizational citizenship behaviors (OCBs). The term ‘organizational citizenship behaviors’ was proposed by Bateman and Organ (1983) to refer to behavior that is beneficial to the organization but that is neither prescribed nor enforced by the organization. Because these behaviors are not enforced, they are by definition optional and employees may withhold them without concern for possible sanctions by the organization. In addition, OCBs are engaged in without any formal incentive being provided by the organization (Schnake, 1991). Organ (1999) suggested that organizational commitment and OCBs are conceptually different. Organizational commitment is primarily a psychological attachment to the organization, whereas OCBs describe actions in the behavioral realm. Although this conceptualization places organizational commitment temporally prior to organizational citizenship behavior, Organ cautions that the temporal relationship should not be construed as causative. 51 | P a g e Organizational commitment may contribute to OCBs, but other variables may also be predictive of them in the case of this study, spirituality at work is postulated to be a predictive antecedent of OC. Scholl (1981) proposed a model of organizational commitment which suggests that organizational citizenship behaviors can be viewed as the result of organizational commitment. He states that organizational commitment results in individuals continuing a given course of action even when the employee’s expectations of the organization are not met. Williams and Anderson (1991) pointed out that OCBs occur, by definition, when there is little or no expectation of recognition by the organization. Thus organizational commitment is a relevant determinant of OCBs. Wiener (1982) proposed that an attitude of commitment results in behaviors that further the interests of the organization, even at the expense of the individual, and are not necessarily rewarded by the organization. This set of behaviors, which Wiener identified as resulting from commitment, is frequently used to describe OCBs, further indicating a strong theoretical link between the two constructs. Despite this theoretical grounding, empirical support for the idea that organizational commitment is a precursor of organizational citizenship behaviors is mixed. Williams and Anderson’s (1991) research using O’Reilly and Chatman’s (1986) scale to measure organizational commitment found no relationship between organizational commitment and OCBs. On the other hand, O’Reilly and Chatman (1986) did find that certain types of commitment resulted in behaviors that could be considered to be organizational citizenship behaviors. For example, commitment based on identification was found to significantly predict self-reports of some OCBs. 3.12 Justification for H2C: OC will correlate positively with OCBs Moorman and Blakely (1995) built on earlier work that suggested that it would be useful to look at several dimensions of organizational commitment rather than combining different types of behaviors into a single construct. They developed a scale that measured four dimensions of OCBs – loyal boosterism, interpersonal helping, individual initiative, and personal industry. Organizational commitment is a good predictor or OCBs for several reasons. For instance, personal industry – a dimension of OCBs – that has been described as paralleling conscientiousness and is reflected by behaviors such as performing duties with care and with few errors, rarely missing work even if there is a legitimate reason, and meeting or beating deadlines (Mooreman and Blakely, 1995) can be predictor by OC. Normative factors (usually organizationally based) including commitment, would play a large role in the development of value systems that would lead to these types of extra-role behaviors. In the west, the Protestant work ethic, which has historically been a force in American work attitudes, can be expected to result in a high level of OCBs. When an employee identifies with and is committed to a particular organization, diligence and hard work often results (Sinha, 1997). The performance of tasks that are not specifically prescribed or rewarded by the organization (i.e. OCBs) can also result from a liking for the organization and a sense of congruent value systems between the employee and the organization. The level of personal industry can be increased by affective commitment, and a sense that furthering the organization’s goals also furthers one’s own goals. Interpersonal helping behaviors, yet another dimension of OCBs, include going out of one’s way to assist co-workers with work-related problems, showing courtesy and concern for co-workers even in difficult situation, adjusting work schedules to accommodate other employees’ desires and welcoming new employees into the organization (Moorman and Blakely, 1995). This dimension of OCBS is hypothesized to relate most strongly to affective commitment. A positive affect toward the organization reciprocally interacts with a positive affect towards one’s co-workers. This positive affect can be expected to result in positive helping behaviors by an employee.”
    This is taken almost verbatim from:
    Kwantes, C. T. (2003). Organizational citizenship and withdrawal behaviors in the USA and india: Does commitment make a difference? International Journal of Cross Cultural Management : CCM, 3(1), 5.

    Frank

    September 4, 2013 at 12:29 pm

  4. From the MSc thesis at Singapore Management University:
    Geh, E. (2009): A Study of the Effects of Mediators between Spirituality at Work and Organizational Citizenship Behaviors, MSc thesis at Singapore Management University.
    “A critical dimension of workplace spirituality involves having a deep connection to, or relationship with, others, which has been articulated as a sense of community (Ashmos and Duchon, 2000). This dimension of workplace spirituality occurs at the group level of human behavior and concerns interactions between employees and their co-workers. Community at work is based on the belief that people see themselves as connected to each other and that there is some type of relationship between one’s inner self and the inner self of other people (Maynard, 1992; Miller, 1992). Neal and Bennett (2000) note that this level of spirituality involves the mental, emotional, and spiritual (e.g. esprit de corps) connections among employees in teams or groups in organizations. The essence of community is that it involves a deeper sense of connection among people, including support, freedom of expression, and genuine caring. There have been a few firms that appear to have developed strong organizational cultures that emphasize a sense of community among employees. For instance, Southwest Airlines community includes a feeling among the employees that they are all part of a larger organizational family, that employees take care of each other as well as their customers, and that the employees’ families are also an important part of the firm (Freiberg and Freiberg, 1996; Milliman et al., 1999). Spirituality in the workplace is greatly enhanced when individuals experience a strong sense of alignment between their personal values and their organization’s mission and purpose. This component of workplace spirituality encompasses the interaction of employees with the larger organizational purpose (Mitroff and Denton, 1999). Alignment with the organization’s values is related to the premise that an individual’s purpose is larger than one’s self and should make a contribution to others or society. Alignment also means that individuals believe that managers and employees in their organization have appropriate values, have a strong conscience, and are concerned about the welfare of its employees and community (Ashmos and Duchon, 2000). Similarly, Hawley (1993) observed that part of living by one’s inner truth involves working in an organization with integrity and a purpose that is beneficial to others beyond simply making a profit. Alignment with organizational values involves the concept that employees desire to work in an organization whose goal is to not just be a good corporate citizen, but an organization that seeks to have a high sense of ethics or integrity and make a larger contribution than the typical company to the welfare of employees, customers, and society. For instance, Malphurs (1996, p. 52) states that a person “should not work for any organization, sacred or secular, if he or she does not share to a great degree the same institutional values””

    Milliman, John, Andrew J. Czaplewski, and Jeffery Ferguson. “Workplace spirituality and employee work attitudes: An exploratory empirical assessment.” Journal of organizational change management 16.4 (2003): 426-447.

    “A critical dimension of workplace spirituality involves having a deep connection to, or relationship with, others, which has been articulated as a sense of community (Ashmos and Duchon, 2000). This dimension of workplace spirituality occurs at the group level of human behavior and concerns interactions between employees and their co-workers. Community at work is based on the belief that people see themselves as connected to each other and that there is some type of relationship between one’s inner self and the inner self of other people (Maynard, 1992; Miller, 1992). Neal and Bennett (2000) note that this level of spirituality involves the mental, emotional, and spiritual (e.g. “esprit de corps”) connections among employees in teams or groups in organizations. The essence of community is that it involves a deeper sense of connection among people, including support, freedom of expression, and genuine caring. There have been a few firms that appear to have developed strong organizational cultures that emphasize a sense of community among employees. For instance, at Southwest Airlines community includes a feeling among the employees that they are all part of a larger organizational family, that employees take care of each other as well as their customers, and that employees’ families are also an important part of the firm (Freiberg and Freiberg, 1996; Milliman et al., 1999). Alignment with organizational values. A third aspect of spirituality in the workplace is when individuals experience a strong sense of alignment between their personal values and their organization’s mission and purpose. This component of workplace spirituality encompasses the interaction of employees with the larger organizational purpose (Mitroff and Denton, 1999). Alignment with the organization’s values is related to the premise that an individual’s purpose is larger than one’s self and should make a contribution to others or society. Alignment also means that individuals believe that managers and employees in their organization have appropriate values, have a strong conscience, and are concerned about the welfare of its employees and community (Ashmos and Duchon, 2000). Similarly, Hawley (1993) observed that part of living by one’s inner truth involves working in an organization with integrity and a purpose that is beneficial to others beyond simply making a profit. Alignment with organizational values involves the concept that employees desire to work in an organization whose goal is to not just be a good corporate citizen, but an organization that seeks to have a high sense of ethics or integrity and make a larger contribution than the typical company to the welfare of employees, customers, and society. For instance, Malphurs (1996, p. 52) states that a person “should not work for any organization, sacred or secular, if he or she does not share to a great degree the same institutional values” “

    Frank

    September 4, 2013 at 12:40 pm

  5. From the MSc thesis at Singapore Management University:
    Geh, E. (2009): A Study of the Effects of Mediators between Spirituality at Work and Organizational Citizenship Behaviors, MSc thesis at Singapore Management University.

    “A great amount of autonomy tends to lead employees to feel that they have control over their work situation and they view what is accomplished as their own, thereby personally taking responsibility for the results of their work and being able to experience a feeling of personal success. However, only when the success is meaningful to them do employees experience positive feelings about themselves. According to Hackman and Lawler (1971), when the job is composed of a sufficiently whole piece of work so that employees are provided with an opportunity to experience task variety so that they can use a number of different skills and abilities that they personally value, the meaningfulness of their work increases. Thus, by experiencing the combined effect of several dimensions of job content as the result of the organization’s focus on spirituality, Hackman and Oldman (1975) argue, employees come to experience a sense of responsibility and success, thereby seeing their organizational roles as meaningful. Through this process, employees develop a cognitively consistent view of the self, and, as a result, individuals’ OBSE is enhanced (Pierce et al., 1989).”

    Lee, Jaewon. “An analysis of the antecedents of organization-based self-esteem in two Korean banks.” The International Journal of Human Resource Management 14.6 (2003): 1046-1066.:

    “A great amount of autonomy tends to lead employees to feel that they have control over their work situation and they view what is accomplished as their own, thereby personally taking responsibility for the results of their work and being able to experience a feeling of personal success. However, only when the success is meaningful to them do employees experience positive feelings about themselves. According to Hackman and Lawler (1971), when the job is composed of a sufficiently whole piece of work so that employees can perceive that they accomplish something of consequence, and when employees are provided with an opportunity to experience task variety so that they can use a number of different skills and abilities that they personally value, the meaningfulness of their work increases. Thus, by experiencing the combined effect of several dimensions of job content (e.g. high job complexity), Hackman and Oldham (1975) argue, employees come to experience a sense of responsibility and success, thereby seeing their organizational roles as meaningful. Through this process, employees develop a cognitively consistent view of the self, and, as a result, individuals’ OBSE is enhanced (Pierce et al., 1989).”

    Frank

    September 4, 2013 at 12:47 pm

    • 4 for 4! On a serious note, this certainly indicates that universities need to use turnitin or other software for Masters (as well as PhD, and probably also any undergraduate) theses. Thanks to Frank for the good detective work! I hope that Eugene can find a productive and fulfilling career outside of academia.

      ST

      September 4, 2013 at 12:54 pm

      • He’s still listed as a current doctoral candidate at Darden….

        BeeTee

        September 11, 2013 at 1:21 am

  6. From the MSc thesis at Singapore Management University:
    Geh, E. (2009): A Study of the Effects of Mediators between Spirituality at Work and Organizational Citizenship Behaviors, MSc thesis at Singapore Management University.

    “Identification with a psychological group is defined as the perception of sharing experiences of a focal group and having common characteristics with its members (Mael and Tetrick, 1992). Organizational identification, in specific, is a subset of the more general identification with a psychological group, defined as feeling one oneness with a certain aggregate of persons, sharing the perceived experience of its successes and failures (Mael and Ashforth, 2001). In short, it refers to the extent to which individuals perceive themselves to be part of a specific organization (Rousseau, 1998). Organizational members are said to identify with the organization when they define themselves at least partly in terms of what the latter is thought to represent (Kreiner and Ashforth, 2004). Identification, with either a psychological group or an organization, describes only the cognitive perception of oneness with the group, not resultant behaviors [Gould (1975) in Mael and Tetrick (1992)]. One of the main reasons that organizational theorists have given emphasis to organizational identification is that is has important implications at the group and organizational level (Kreiner and Ashforth, 2004). In particular, it has been found that it positively relates to performance and OCB (Mael and Ashforth, 1995), as it acts as a driving force for employees. Studying physicians in specific, Duckerich, Golden, and Shortell (2002) argued that in healthcare systems, employees who identify with a particular system are more likely to engage in extra-role behaviors, such as efforts to improve quality and minimize costs. Given the fact that Greek public hospitals cannot rely on direct inducements to ensure cooperative behaviors, the degree to which doctors and nurses identify with the hospital they work at may be an important factor in determining their behavior.”

    To be found verbatim in:

    Bellou, V., L. Chitiris, and A. Bellou. “The impact of organizational identification and self-esteem on Organizational Citizenship Behavior: The case of Greek public hospitals.” Operational Research 5.2 (2005): 305-318.

    Frank

    September 4, 2013 at 12:54 pm


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